Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

UR 1264 - MYCSA : Mycologie et securite des aliments


Mycologie & Sécurité des Aliments
INRA Bordeaux-Aquitaine
BP 81
33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex

Carotenoids in maize affect the production of TCTB by Fusarium graminearum and contribute to the resistance to Giberella Ear Rot

14 February 2023

Savignac et al 2023
Our new paper in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Savignac J.-M., Atanasova V., Chereau S., Ducos C., Gallegos N., Ortega V., Ponts N., Richard-Forget F. (2023) Carotenoids occurring in maize affect the redox homeostasis of Fusarium graminearum and its production of type B trichothecene mycotoxins: New insights supporting their role in maize resistance to Gibberella Ear Rot. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. In press.


ABSTRACT: Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Gibberella ear rot (GER) in maize, a devastating fungal disease resulting in yield reduction and contamination of grains with type B trichothecene (TCTB) mycotoxins. Reducing GER damage requires the
implementation of an integrated management strategy in which the use of resistant maize genotypes is a key factor. The present study aimed at providing new phenotyping tools to improve breeding pipelines by investigating the yet understudied contribution of
carotenoids to GER resistance. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the efficiency of carotenoid extracts from various maize genotypes to inhibit the production of TCTB by F. graminearum. We further suggested that zeaxanthin could be a key actor of this
inhibition efficiency, notably via a negative transcriptional control of several biosynthetic genes of the TCTB pathway. Besides, we demonstrated that zeaxanthin treatments led to profound perturbations in the fungal redox homeostasis by affecting the expression
of key genes encoding ROS detoxifying enzymes, several of them being involved in F. graminearum virulence during plant infection. Altogether, our data support the contribution of carotenoids to the mechanisms employed by maize to counteract F. graminearum
infection and its production of TCTB.