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24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Heuertz Myriam

Heuertz Myriam

Equipe E4E

Myriam Heuertz

UMR Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés
Tel : +33 5 35 38 5329

Biographical sketch and research interests

I am a research director (DR2) at INRAE, UMR Biogeco, which I joined in 2014 as research scientist. I hold a PhD in Science from the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium (2003) and have postdoctoral experience in Sweden, Luxembourg, Belgium, Switzerland and Spain, where I held a 5-year ‘Ramón y Cajal’ Independent Researcher position (2010-2014). I defended my habilitation thesis (HDR) at the University of Bordeaux in 2019.

My research focuses on ecological population genetics of plants, mostly trees, from temperate and tropical regions. I use molecular tools including high-throughput sequencing to unveil evolutionary processes within species and in communities of closely related species. I investigate species delimitation and population demographic history and use genetic data in conjunction with phenotypes and microenvironmental data to characterize drivers of adaptive evolution. I am also interested in conservation genetics and collaborate in the very active COST Action G-BIKE as leader of Working Group 3 on Genomics and Ecosystem services, as well as on conservation policy.

I have participated in numerous national and international research projects funded through competitive calls and have supervised four PhD students, numerous master students and three postdocs. I dedicate a lot of time to scientific editing, as associate editor of Molecular Ecology (since 2010), Molecular Ecology Resources (since 2019), Plant Ecology and Evolution (since 2010) and, occasionally, as a recommender for Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology. Here a few links to my profiles at Google scholar, ORCiD and ResearchGate

Ongoing projects

TREEMUTATION – Mutation in the tropical tree canopy. Labex CEBA strategic project, 2020 – 2023. Principal Investigators: Myriam Heuertz and Niklas Tysklind (INRAE, UMR Ecofog, French Guiana).

We are interested in detecting novel intra-individual mutations in the genomes of tropical trees and test if the accumulation of mutations is associated with the exposure to UV light in the the tropical tree canopy in French Guiana.

RARETREE – Eco-evolutionary implications of commonness vs. rarity in Amazonian tree congeners. Labex CEBA project. 2019 - 2021. Principal Investigator: Myriam Heuertz.

We examine the demographic history of closely related Amazonian tree species of the Lecythidaceae family, using a two-site approach in French Guiana (collaboration with INRAE UMR Ecofog) and Ecuador (collaboration with Universidad San Francisco de Quito). The idea is to test if abundant and widespread tree species have larger historical effective population size than rare, or endemic species, to help us find out if there is a common demographic underpinning to rarity in the Amazonian tree flora.

G-BIKE – Genomic BIodiversity Knowledge for Resilient Ecosystems. EU COST Action CA18134, 2019 – 2023. PI: Cristiano Vernesi. Leader of WG3 on Genomics and ecosystem services: Myriam Heuertz.

Publications (SCI journals)

70. Leal BSS, Chaves CJN, Araujo Graciano V, Boury C, Pillaca Huacre LA, Heuertz M*, Palma-Silva C*. 2021. Evidence of local adaptation despite strong drift in a Neotropical patchily distributed bromeliad. Heredity, in press.

69. Laikre L, Hohenlohe PA, Allendorf FW, Bertola LB, Breed MF, Bruford MW, Funk WC, Gajardo G, González-Rodríguez A, Grueber CE, Hedrick PW, Heuertz M, Hunter ME, Johannesson K, Liggins L, MacDonald AJ, Mergeay J, Moharrek F, O’Brien D, Ogden R, Orozco-terWengel P, Palma-Silva C, Pierson J, Paz-Vinas I, Russo I-RM, Ryman N, Segelbacher G, Sjögren-Gulve P, Waits LP, Vernesi C, Hoban S. 2021. Authors’ Reply to Letter to the Editor: Continued improvement to genetic diversity indicator for CBD. Conservation Genetics.

68. Hoban S, Paz-Vinas I, Aitken S, Bertola LD, Breed MF, Bruford MW, Funk WC, Grueber CE, Heuertz M, Hohenlohe P, Hunter ME, Jaffé R, Fernandes ML, Mergeay J, Moharrek F, O’Brien D, Segelbacher G, Vernesi C, Waits L, Laikre L. 2020. Effective population size remains a suitable, pragmatic indicator of genetic diversity for all species, including forest trees. Biological Conservation 108906.

67. Marden E, Abbott RJ, Austerlitz F, Ortiz-Barrientos D, Baucom RS, Bongaerts P, Bonin A, Bonneaud C, Browne L, Alex Buerkle C, Caicedo AL, Coltman DW, Cruzan MB, Davison A, DeWoody JA, Dumbrell AJ, Emerson BC, Fountain-Jones NM, Gillespie R, Giraud T, Hansen MM, Hodgins KA, Heuertz M, Hirase S, Hooper R, Hohenlohe P, Kane NC, Kelley JL, Kinziger AP, McKenzie VJ, Moreau CS, Nazareno AG, Pelletier TA, Pemberton JM, Qu Y, Renaut S, Riginos C, Rodríguez-Ezpeleta N, Rogers SM, Russell JA, Schoville SD, Shi S, Smith M, Sork VL, Stone GN, Taberlet P, Videvall E, Waits L, Warschefsky E, Wayne RK, Whibley A, Willoughby J, Yoder JB, Zinger L, Sibbett B, Narum S, Rieseberg LH (2020) Sharing and reporting benefits from biodiversity research. Molecular Ecology.

66. Demenou BB, Migliore J, Heuertz M, Monthe Kameni FS, Ojeda DI, Wieringa JJ, Dauby G, Albreht L, Boom A, Hardy OJ. 2020. Plastome phylogeography in two African rain forest legume trees reveals that Dahomey Gap populations originate from the Cameroon volcanic line. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 150: 106854.

65. Abbate L, Mercati F, Di Noto G, Heuertz M, Carimi F, Fatta Del Bosco S, Schicchi R. 2020. Genetic Distinctiveness Highlights the Conservation Value of a Sicilian Manna Ash Germplasm Collection Assigned to Fraxinus angustifolia (Oleaceae). Plants 9:1035.

64. Hoban S, Bruford M, D’Urban Jackson J, Lopes-Fernandes M, Heuertz M, Hohenlohe PA, Paz-Vinas I, Sjögren-Gulve P, Segelbacher G, Vernesi C, Aitken S, Bertola LD, Bloomer P, Breed M, Rodríguez-Correa H, Funk WC, Grueber CE, Hunter ME, Jaffe R, Liggins L, Mergeay J, Moharrek F, O’Brien D, Ogden R, Palma-Silva C, Pierson J, Ramakrishnan U, Simo-Droissart M, Tani N, Waits L, Laikre L. 2020. Genetic diversity targets and indicators in the CBD post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework must be improved. Biological Conservation 248:108654.

63. Donkpegan A, Hardy OJ, Doucet JL, Heuertz M*, Piñeiro R*. 2020. Miocene diversification in the savannahs precedes tetraploid rainforest radiation in the African tree genus Afzelia (Detarioideae, Fabaceae). Frontiers in Plant Science 11:798. *joint senior authors

62. Schmitt S, Hérault B, Ducouret E, Baranger A, Tysklind N, Heuertz M, Marcon E, Cazal SO, Derroire G. 2020. Topography consistently drives intra- and inter-specific leaf trait variation within tree species complexes in a Neotropical forest. Oikos 129: 1521-1530.

61. Muniz AC, Lemos-Filho JC, Viana e Souza HA, Marinho RC, Buzatti RSdO, Heuertz M*, Lovato MB*. 2020. The protected tree Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae) is a population of inter-specific hybrids: recommendations for conservation in the Brazilian Cerrado/Atlantic Forest ecotone. Annals of Botany 126:191-203. * joint senior authors.

60. Heuertz M, Caron H, Scotti-Saintagne C, Pétronelli P, Engel J, Tysklind N, Miloudi S, Gaiotto FA, Chave J, Molino JF, Sabatier D, Budde KB. 2020. The hyperdominant tropical tree Eschweilera coriacea (Parvifolia clade, Lecythidaceae) shows higher genetic heterogeneity than sympatric Eschweilera species in French Guiana. Plant Ecology and Evolution 153: 67-81.

59. Donkpegan ASL, Piñeiro R, Heuertz M, Duminil J, Daïnou K, Doucet J-L, Hardy OJ. 2020. Population genomics of the widespread African savannah trees Afzelia africana and Afzelia quanzensis reveals no significant past fragmentation of their distribution ranges. American Journal of Botany 107(3), 498-509.

58. Laikre L, Hoban S, Bruford MW, Segelbacher G, Allendorf FW, Gajardo G, Rodríguez AG, Hedrick PW, Heuertz M, Hohenlohe PA, Jaffé R, Johannesson K, Liggins L, MacDonald AJ, OrozcoterWengel P, Reusch TBH, Rodríguez-Correa H, Russo, I-RM, Ryman N, Vernesi C, 2020. Post-2020 goals overlook genetic diversity. Science 367:1083-1085.

57. Kattge J, Boenisch, Diaz S, et al. 2020. TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access. Global Change Biology 26:119–188.

56. Leal BSS, Graciano V, Chaves C, Huacre L, Heuertz M, Palma da Silva C (2019) Dispersal and local persistence shape the genetic structure of a widespread Neotropical plant species with a patchy distribution. Annals of Botany 124, 499-512.

55. Aissi A, Beghami Y, Heuertz M (2019) Le chêne faginé (Quercus faginea, Fagaceae) en Algérie : potentiel germinatif et variabilité morphologique des glands et des semis. Plant Ecology and Evolution 152, 437–449.

54. Vargas OM, Heuertz M, Smith SA, Dick CW (2019) Target sequence capture in the Brazil nut family (Lecythidaceae): Marker selection and in silico capture from genome skimming data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 135, 98–104.

53. Goncalves AL, García M, Heuertz M, González-Martínez SC (2019) Demographic history and spatial genetic structure in a remnant population of the subtropical tree Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul (Fabaceae). Annals of Forest Science 76, 18.

52. Mairal M, Caujapé-Castells J, Pellissier L, Jaén-Molina R, Álvarez N, Heuertz M, Sanmartín I (2018) A tale of two forests: ongoing aridification drives population decline and genetic diversity loss at continental scale in Afro-Macaronesian evergreen-forest archipelago endemics. Annals of Botany 122, 1005–1017.

51. Torroba-Balmori MP, Budde KB, Heer K, González-Martínez SC, Olsson S, Scotti-Saintagne C, Casalis M, Sonké B, Dick CW, Heuertz M (2017) Altitudinal gradients, biogeographic history and microhabitat adaptation affect fine-scale spatial genetic structure in African and Neotropical populations of an ancient tropical tree species. PLOS ONE 12(8), e0182515.

50. Nieto Feliner G, Álvarez Fernández I, Fuertes Aguilar J, Heuertz M, Marques I, Moharrek F, Piñeiro R, Riina R, Rosselló JA, Soltis P, Villa Machío I (2017) Is homoploid hybrid speciation that rare? An empiricist’s view. Heredity 118, 513–516.

49. Holliday JA, Aitken SN, Cooke JEK, Fady B, González-Martínez SC, Heuertz M, Jaramillo-Correa J-P, Lexer C, Staton M, Whetten RW, Plomion C (2017) Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding. Molecular Ecology 26(3), 706–717.

48. Budde KB, González-Martínez SC, Navascués M, Burgarella C, Hernández-Serrano A, Lorenzo Z, Zabal-Aguirre M, Vendramin GG, Verdú M, Pausas JG, Heuertz M (2017) Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill. Annals of Botany 119(6), 1061–1072.

47. Tollefsrud MM, Myking T, Sønstebø JH, Hietala A, Heuertz M (2016) Genetic structure in the northern range margins of common ash, Fraxinus excelsior L. PLOS ONE 11, e0167104.

46. Forrest A, Escudero M, Heuertz M, Wilson Y, Cano E, Vargas P (2017) Testing the hypothesis of low genetic diversity and population structure in narrow endemic species: the endangered Antirrhinum charidemi (Plantaginaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 183(2), 260–270.

45. Ley A, Heuertz M, Hardy OJ (2017) The evolutionary history of central African rain forest plants: phylogeographical insights from sister species in the climber genus Haumania (Marantaceae). Journal of Biogeography 44(2), 308–321.

44. Olsson S, Seoane-Zonjic P, Bautista R, Claros MG, González-Martínez SC, Scotti I, Scotti-Saintagne C, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M (2017) Development of genomic tools in a widespread tropical tree, Symphonia globulifera L.f.: a new low-coverage draft genome, SNP and SSR markers. Molecular Ecology Resources 17(4), 614–630.

43. Macaya-Sanz D, Heuertz M, Lindtke D, Lexer C, González-Martínez SC (2016) Causes and consequences of large clonal assemblies in a poplar hybrid zone. Molecular Ecology 25, 5330–5344.

42. Ribeiro P, Souza ML, Muller LAC, Ellis VA, Heuertz M, Lemos-Filho JP, Lovato MB (2016) Climatic drivers of leaf traits and genetic divergence in the tree Annona crassiflora: a broad spatial survey in the Brazilian savanna. Global Change Biology 22(11), 3789–3803.

41. Correa Ribeiro P, Lemos-Filho JP, Buzatti RS, Lovato MB, Heuertz M (2016) Species-specific phylogeographic patterns and Pleistocene east-west divergence in Annona (Annonaceae) trees in the Brazilian Cerrado. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181, 21–36.

40. Ojeda F, Budde KB, Heuertz M, Segarra-Moragues JG, González Martínez SC (2016) Biogeography and evolution of seeder and resprouter forms of Erica coccinea (Ericaceae) in the fire-prone Cape fynbos. Plant Ecology 217, 751–761.  

39. Unger GM, Heuertz M, Vendramin GG, Robledo-Arnuncio JJ. 2016. Assessing early fitness consequences of exotic gene flow in the wild: a field study with Iberian pine relicts. Evolutionary Applications 9(2), 367–80.

38. Pokorny L, Riina R, Mairal M, Culshaw V, Meseguer AS, Serrano M, Carbajal R, Ortiz S, Heuertz M, Sanmartin I. 2015. Living on the edge: timing of Rand Flora disjunctions congruent with ongoing aridification in Africa. Frontiers in Genetics 6, 154.

37. Plomion C, Bastien C, Bogeat-Triboulot M-B, Bouffier L, Déjardin A, Duplessis S, Fady B, Heuertz M, Le Gac A-L, Le Provost G, Legué V, Lelu-Walter A-M, Leplé J-C, Maury S, Morel A, Oddou-Muratorio S, Pilate G, Sanchez L, Scotti I, Scotti-Saintagne C, Segura V, Trontin J-F, Vacher C (2016) Forest tree genomics: 10 achievements from the past 10 years and future prospects. Annals of Forest Science 73, 77–103.

36. Jaramillo-Correa JP, Grivet D, Lepoittevin C, Sebastiani F, Heuertz M, Garnier-Géré P, Alía R, Plomion C, Vendramin GG, González-Martínez SC (2015) Molecular proxies of climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae). Genetics 199(3), 793–807.

35. Lexer C, Wüest R, Mangili S, Heuertz M, Stölting KN, Pearman P, Forest F, Salamin N, Zimmermann N, Bossolini E (2014) Genomics of the speciation continuum in an African plant biodiversity hotspot I: drivers of population divergence in Restio capensis (Restionaceae). Molecular Ecology 23, 4373–4386.

34. Källman T, De Mita S, Larsson H, Gyllenstrand N, Heuertz M, Parducci L, Suyama Y, Lagercrantz U, Lascoux M (2014) Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies L. (Karst)], PLOS ONE 9, e95306.

33. Dauby G, Duminil J, Heuertz M, Koffi KG, Stévart T, Hardy OJ (2014) Congruent phylogeographic patterns of eight tree species in Atlantic Central Africa provide insights on the past dynamics of forest cover. Molecular Ecology 23, 2299–2312.

32. Budde KB, Heuertz M, Hernández-Serrano A, Pausas JG, Vendramin GG, Verdú M, González-Martínez SC (2014). In situ genetic association for fire serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). New Phytologist 201, 230–241.

31. Heuertz M, Duminil J, Dauby G, Savolainen V, Hardy OJ (2014) Comparative phylogeography in rainforest trees from Lower Guinea, Africa. PLOS ONE 9, e84307.

30. Piotti A, Leonardi S, Heuertz M, Buiteveld J, Geburek T, Gerber S, Kramer K, Vettori C, Vendramin GG (2013) Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure? PLOS ONE 8, e73391.

29. Hardy OJ, Born C, Budde K, Daïnou K, Dauby G, Duminil J, Ewédjé EEBK, Gomez C, Heuertz M, Koffi GK, Lowe AJ, Micheneau C, Ndiade-Bourobou D, Piñeiro R, Poncet V (2013) Comparative phylogeography of African rain forest trees: a review of genetic signatures of vegetation history in the Guineo-Congolian region. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 345, 284–296.

28. Budde KB, González-Martínez SC, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M (2013) The ancient tropical rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) was not restricted to postulated Pleistocene refugia in Atlantic Equatorial Africa. Heredity 11, 66–76.

27. Macaya-Sanz D, Heuertz M, López-de-Heredia U, de-Lucas AI, Hidalgo E, Maestro C, Prada A, Alía R, González-Martínez SC. 2012. The Atlantic-Mediterranean watershed, river basins and glacial history shape the genetic structure of Iberian poplars. Molecular Ecology 21, 3593–3609.

26. Koffi KG, Heuertz M, Jans R, Hardy O, Vendramin GG, Duminil J (2012) Characterization of new microsatellite loci isolated from Santiria trimera (Burseraceae). American Journal of Botany 99, E334–E336.

25. Duminil J, Koffi GK, Debout G, Sebastiani F, Vendramin GG, Heuertz M, González-Martínez SC, Hardy OJ (2011) Isolation of SSR markers for two African tropical tree species Erythrophleum ivorense and E. suaveolens (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). American Journal of Botany 98, E106–E108.

24. Koffi KG, Hardy OH, Doumenge C, Cruaud C, Heuertz M (2011) Diversity gradients and pylogeographic patterns in a widespread African tree of mature rainforests, Santiria trimera, Burseraceae. American Journal of Botany 98, 254–264.

23. Duminil J, Heuertz M, Doucet JL, Bourland N, Cruaud C, Gavory F, Doumenge C, Navascués M, Hardy OJ (2010) CpDNA-based species identification and phylogeography: application to African tropical tree species. Molecular Ecology 19, 5469–5483.

22. Daïnou K, Bizoux JP, Doucet JL, Mahy G, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M (2010) Forest refugia revisited: SSRs and cpDNA sequence support historial isolation in a wide-spread African tree with high colonization capacity, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae). Molecular Ecology 19, 4462–4477.

21. Koffi KG, Heuertz M, Doumenge C, Onana JM, Hardy OJ (2010) A combined analysis of morphological traits, chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences within Santiria trimera (Burseraceae) suggests several species following the Biological Species Concept. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143, 160–169.

20. Santana SC, Heuertz M, Arranz C, Rubio JA, Martínez-Zapater JM, Hidalgo E (2010) Genetic structure, origins and relationships of grapevine cultivars from the Castilian Plateau (Northern-Central Spain). American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 61, 214–224.

19. Albaladejo RG, González-Martínez SC, Heuertz M, Vendramin GG, Aparicio A (2009) Spatiotemporal mating pattern variation in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean shrub. Molecular Ecology 18, 5195–5206.

18. Heuertz M, Teufel J, González-Martínez SC, Soto A, Fady B, Alía R, Vendramin GG (2010) Geography determines genetic relationships between species of mountain pine (Pinus mugo complex) in western Europe. Journal of Biogeography 37, 541–556.

17. Bizoux JP, Daïnou K, Bourland N, Hardy OJ, Heuertz M, Mahy G, Doucet JL (2009) Spatial genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene dispersal in a low density wind pollinated tropical tree. Molecular Ecology 18, 4398–4408.

16. De-Lucas AI, González-Martínez SC, Vendramin GG, Hidalgo E, Heuertz M (2009) Spatial genetic structure in continuous and fragmented populations of Pinus pinaster Aiton. Molecular Ecology 18, 4564–4576.

15. Goryslavets S, Risovanna V, Bacilieri R, Hausman JF, Heuertz M (2010) A parentage study of closely related Ukrainian wine grape cultivars using microsatellite markers. Cytology and Genetics 44, 29–37.

14. De-Lucas AI, González-Martínez SC, Hidalgo E, Bravo F, Heuertz M (2009) Admixture, one-source colonization or long-term persistence of maritime pine in the Castilian Plateau? Insights from nuclear microsatellite markers. Investigacíon agraria: sistemas y recursos forestales 18, 3–12.

13. Dick CW, Heuertz M (2008) The complex biogeographic history of a widespread tropical tree species. Evolution 62, 2760–2774.

12. Barbará T, Lexer C, Martinelli G, Mayo S, Fay M, Heuertz M (2008) Within-population spatial genetic structure in four naturally fragmented plant species of a Neotropical ‘inselberg’ radiation, Alcantarea imperialis, A. geniculata, A. glaziouana, and A. regina (Bromeliaceae). Heredity 101, 285–296.

11. Heuertz M, Goryslavets S, Hausman JF, Risovanna V (2008) Characterization of grapevine accessions from Ukraine using microsatellite markers. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 59, 169–178.

10. Heuertz M, De Paoli E, Källman T, Larsson H, Jurman I, Morgante M,  Lascoux M, Gyllenstrand N (2006) Multilocus patterns of nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium and demographic history of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Genetics 174, 2095–2105.

9.   Frantz AC, Tigel Pourtois J, Heuertz M, Schley L, Flamand MC, Krier A, Bertouille S, Chaumont F, Burke T (2006) Genetic structure and assignment tests demonstrate illegal translocation of red deer (Cervus elaphus) into a continuous population. Molecular Ecology 15, 3191–3203.

8.   Heuertz M, Carnevale S, Fineschi S, Sebastiani F, Hausman JF, Paule L, Vendramin GG (2006) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of European ashes, Fraxinus sp. (Oleaceae): roles of hybridisation and life history traits. Molecular Ecology 15, 2131–2140.

7.   Heuertz M, Fineschi S, Anzidei M, Pastorelli R, Salvini D, Paule L, Frascaria-Lacoste N, Hardy OJ, Vekemans X, Vendramin GG (2004) Chloroplast DNA variation and postglacial recolonisation of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in Europe. Molecular Ecology 13, 3437–3452.

6.   Djè Y, Heuertz M, Ater M, Lefèbvre C, Vekemans X (2004) In situ estimation of outcrossing rate in sorghum landraces using microsatellite markers. Euphytica 138, 205–212.

5.   Heuertz M, Hausman JF, Hardy OJ, Vendramin GG, Frascaria-Lacoste N, Vekemans X (2004) Nuclear microsatellites reveal contrasting patterns of genetic structure between western and southeastern European populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Evolution 58, 976–988.

4.   Heuertz M, Vekemans X, Hausman JF, Palada M, Hardy OJ (2003) Estimating seed versus pollen dispersal from spatial genetic structure in the common ash. Molecular Ecology 12, 2483–2495.

3.   Hardy OJ, Charbonnel N, Freville H, Heuertz M (2003) Microsatellite Allele Sizes: A simple test to assess their significance. Genetics 163, 1467–1482.

2.   Heuertz M, Hausman JF, Tsvetkov I, Frascaria-Lacoste N, Vekemans X (2001) Assessment of genetic structure within and among Bulgarian populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Molecular Ecology 10, 1615–1624.

1.   Djè Y, Heuertz M, Lefèbvre C, Vekemans X (2000) Assessment of genetic diversity within and among germplasm accessions in cultivated sorghum using microsatellite markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100, 918–925.